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水善利万物而不争,故几于道。 居善地,心善渊,与善仁,言

 
 
 

日志

 
 

自学考试---文艺复兴运动和人文主义思潮的产生  

2014-04-30 20:00:21|  分类: 技术必备 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

  下载LOFTER 我的照片书  |

 该时期的重要作家
 1.一般识记:重要作家的文学生涯
 2.识记:重要作品及主要内容
 3.领会:重要作家的创作思想,艺术特色及其代表作品的主题结构,人物塑造,语言风格,艺术手法,社会意义等。
 4.应用:(1)莎士比亚和邓恩诗歌的主题,意象
     (2)喜剧《威尼斯商人》的主题和主要人物性格分析
     (3)哈姆雷特的性格分析
     (4)史诗《失乐园》(弥尔顿)的结构,人物性格,语言特点等的分析

I. Edmund Spenser

1. 一般识记 Brief Introduction to the Author
English poet
born in London, England, about 1552,and died in London, Jan 13, 1599.

2. 识记His Major Works
Spenser's most important work & masterpiece is The Faerie Queene, a great poem of its age. A complex moral, religious, & political allegory
['?l?g(?)r?] 寓言), it is also an epic ['ep?k] 史诗;叙事诗) that exalts[?g'z??lt; eg-]vt. 提升;提拔;赞扬;使得意) Queen Elizabeth & the English nation. According to Spenser's own explanation, his

principal intention is to present through a "historical poem" the

example of a perfect gentleman: "to fashion a gentleman or noble

person in virtuous & gentle discipline." Its principal hero is the

Arthur of medieval legend. The six books of the poem illustrate the nature of particular virtues, such as, temperance ['temp(?)r(?)ns] 节欲) & justice. Other major works of Spenser are The Shepheardes Calender(1579), a poem consisting of 12 eclogues-corresponding ['ekl?g] 牧歌;田园诗[?k?r??sp?nd??] 相当的,对应的)to the 12 months of the year;

Epithalamion (1595), a poem expressing the deep personal feelings occasioned by the poets second marriage; Amoretti (1595), a series of sonnets.

3. 领会His Influence
 1) Main qualities of Spenser's poetry
  ①a perfect melody ['mel?d?] 旋律;歌曲)
  ②a rare sense of beauty
  ③a splendid imagination
  ④a lofty moral purity & seriousness
  ⑤a dedicated idealism
 2) In his writing, Spenser drew on the conventions & thought of Classical, medieval, & Renaissance literature. However, he added to his fusion of these diverse elements much that was original, & his works inspired many later English poets. He created a new stanza, called the Spenserian stanza, which is well suited to narrative verse. His skills in writing melodious English verse & his combination of emotion, erudition, & spiritual vision have won him the admiration of generations of English poets. It is his idealism, his love of beauty, &his exquisite melody that make him known as "the poets' poet."

4. 应用 The Faerie Queene:

1) It is a long, allegorical[,?l?'g?r?k(?)l]讽喻的;寓言的) poem. In the poem, Spenser dramatized political, religious, & moral themes by personifying them, or making them characters.
 2)Plot: The story, which is set against a background of Arthur & medieval legend, deals with the adventures of six knights of the court of the fairy queen named Gloriana, who represents Queen Elizabeth of English.
    The faerie Queen was left unfinished at Spenser's death. It was originally planned as a 12-book poem. But only 6 books were completed. The poem is particularly admired for the melodic beauty of its language & for its rich content of philosophical & mythological material presented in the form of vivid narratives.

II. Christopher Marlowe

1. 一般识记Brief Introduction
 English dramatist & poet, born in Canterbury, England, Feb. 6, 1567, died in Deptford, England, May 30, 1593. Marlowe was the first great English Dramatist. He brought to the English stage a new concept (['k?nsept] 观念,概念) of tragedy, one in which the drama centers around the struggles of a man overwhelmed by his passions & ambitions.

 2. 识记 His Major Works
 His most famous tragedies are Doctor Faustus, The Jew of Malta, Tamburlaine & Edward . In his plays, Marlowe used blank verse, which he molded into a superb instrument for expressing intense emotions. After his development of blank verse it became the standard medium for English dramatic & epic poetry. His non-dramatic poetry includes Hero & Leander, "the Passionate shepherd to His love," & a verse translation of Ovid's Amores.
Marlowe's Doctor Faustus (about 1589), generally considered his best play, was based on a real Dr. Faustus, who was later associated with a medieval legend of a man selling his soul to the devil. The play's dominant moral is human rather than religious. It celebrates the human passion for knowledge, power & happiness; it also reveals man's frustration in realizing the high aspirations in a hostile moral order. The last scene, in which Faustus confronts his doom, brilliantly renders the fear & agony of a condemned man.
 The Jew of Malta (about 1589) illustrates Marlowe's outstanding portrayal of character. Its hero, Barabas the Jew, served as the model for Shylock in Shakespeare's The Merchant of Venice. In about 1592. Marlowe wrote one of the first successful English historical dramas, Edward . It is his most dramatically mature play & exhibits his mastery of characterization, stage craft & rhetoric.
 Tamburlaine is a play about an ambitious & pitiless Tartar conqueror in the fourteenth century who rose from a shepherd to an overpowering King. By depicting a great hero with high ambition & sheer brutal force in conquering one enemy after another, Marlowe voiced the supreme desire of the man of the Renaissance for infinite power & authority.

 3. 领会His Achievements & Influence
 Achievements: Marlowe's greatest achievement lies in that he  perfected the blank verse & made it the principal medium of English dramaHis second achievement is his creation of the Renaissance hero for English dramaThe theme of his works is the praise of the Renaissance spirit.
 His influence: A man of wide learning, Marlowe was one of the extra ordinary poets & playwrights of his time. "Marlowe's mighty line," as Ben Jonson called his blank verse, was one of the most important contributions to the art of English literature.

 4. 应用Dr. Faustus
 The selection of Actfrom Dr. Faustus is mainly about Faustus is showing his great ambition, that is, if he had many souls, he would give them all to the Devil so that he could control the world. In portraying Faustus, a more introspective & philosophical figure than Tamburlaine, Marlowe praises his soaring aspiration for knowledge while warning against the sin of pride since Faustus's downfall was caused by his despair in God & trust in Devil.

. William Shakespeare

1. 一般识记 Brief Introduction

William Shakespeare was the greatest writer of plays who ever lived. His friend & fellow playwright Ben Jonson said that Shakespeare was "not of an age but for all time." The 18th-century English essayist Samuel Johnson described his work as "the mirror of life." The 19th-century English poet Samuel Taylor Coleridge spoke of "myriad-minded Shakespeare." The 20th-century English dramatist George Bernard Shaw stressed his "enormous power over language."

2. 识记 His Life & Career
  The exact date of Shakespeare's birth is not known, but his baptism was recorded on April 26, 1564, in the parish register of Holy Trinity Church at Stratford-on-Avon. Since it was customary to baptize infants within two or three days of birth, April 23 is regarded as a reasonable birth date. It is also the date on which he died in 1616. Generally, his dramatic career is divided into 4 periods.
The First Period (1590-1594)-five historical plays & four comedies:
 Henry , part (1590)  Henry , part (1590)
 Henry , part (1591) Richard (1592)

Titus Andronicus (1593)

The Comedy of Errors (1592)The Two Gentlemen of Verona (1594)
 The Taming of the Shrew (1593)Love's Labor's Lost (1594)
 The Second Period (1595-1600)-five historical plays, six comedies & two tragedies:
Richard
(1595)King John (1596)Henry , Part & Part (1597)Henry V (1598)A Midsummer Night's Dream (1595)
The Merchant of Venice (1596)
Much Ado About Nothing (1598)
As You Like It (1599)
Twelfth Night (1600)The Merry Wives of Winsor (1598)
Romeo & Juliet (1595)
Julius Caesar (1599)
The Third Period (1601-1609)-Seven tragedies & two dark comedies:
Hamlet
Othello King Lear MacbethAntony & Cleopatra
Troilus & Cressida
Coriolonus
All's Well That Ends Well
Measure for Measure
The Fourth Period (1609-1612)-Romantic tragic-comedies & two plays:
Pericles
Cymbeline The Winte's TaleThe TempestHenry Ⅷ,
The Two Noble Kinsmen

Shakespeare's authentic non-dramatic poetry consists of two long narrative poems: Venus & Adonis & The Rape of Lucrece & his sequence of 154 sonnets.

3. 领会His Influence
1) Contributions to language
Many words and commonly used phrases have been added to everyday English vocabulary through their appearance in Shakespeare's works.
2) Effects on literature
Shakespeare's plays & poetry have had a pervasive influence on world literature. Most of the great literary figures of the world have been inspired & stimulated by his achievement.
On the whole, however, Shakespeare's contribution has been to the language & spirit of later writing rather than to its form. References & parallels to Shakespeare's phraseology have occurred in literature since the 16th century.
Perhaps the greatest inspiration to subsequent authors has been Shakespeare's capacity to depict life in all its complexity & to illuminate man's character & destiny.

4. 领会 His Major Works

1) Drama
   A. The Merchant of Venice
Theme: to praise the friendship between Antonio & Bassanio, to idealize Portia as a heroine of great beauty, wit & loyalty, & to expose the insatiable greed & brutality of the Jew.
Plot: The play has a double plot (P39)
   B. Hamlet
Hamlet is generally regarded as Shakespeare's most popular play on the stage, for it has the qualities of a "blood-and-thunder" thriller & a philosophical exploration of life & death. And the timeless appeal of this mighty drama lies in its combination of intrigue, emotional conflict & searching philosophic melancholy.
The play opens with Hamlet, Prince of Denmark, appearing in a mood of world-weariness occasioned by his father's recent death & by his mother's hasty remarriage with Claudius, his father's brother. While encountering his father's ghost, Hamlet is informed that Claudius has murdered his father & then taken over both his father's throne & widow. This, Hamlet, is urged by the ghost to seek revenge for his father's "foul & most unnatural murder." Trapped in a nightmare world of spying, testing & plotting, & apparently bearing the intolerable burden of the duty to revenge his father's death, Hamlet is obliged to inhabit a shadow world, to live suspended between fact & fiction, language & action. His life is one of constant role-playing, examining the nature of action only to deny its possibility, for he is too sophisticated to degrade his nature to the conventional role of a stage revenger. By characterizing Hamlet, Shakespeare successfully makes a philosophical exploration of life & death.
   C. The Tempest
The Tempest, an elaborate & fantastic story, is known as the best of his final romances. The characters are rather allegorical & the subject full of suggestion. The humanly impossible events can be seen occurring everywhere, in the play. The playwright resorts to the supernatural atmosphere & to the dreams to solve the conflict. To Shakespeare, the whole life is no more than a dream. Thus, The Tempest is a typical example of his pessimistic view towards human life & society in his late years.
 2) Poems  A. Sonnets(['s?n?t] 十四行诗)
  The first 126 sonnets are apparently addressed to a handsome young nobleman, presumably the author's patron. The poems express the writer's selfless but not entirely uncritical devotion to the young man.
  Twenty of the sonnets are about a young woman characterized as a " dark lady," whom the poet distrust but cannot resist. The poems addressed directly to her are perhaps the most remarkable in the sequence because their unsentimental tone is unlike that of traditional love sonnets.
  A philosophical theme that appears in many of the sonnets is that of time as the destroyer of all mortal things. Also expressed in the poems is the author's disillusionment with the false ness of earthly life.
  The form of the poems is the English Variation of the traditional Italian, or Petrarchan, sonnet, Shakespeare's sonnets have three quatrains, or groups of four lines, & a final couplet. Their rhyme scheme is abab, cdcd, efef, gg. A theme is developed & elaborated in the quatrains, & a concluding thought is presented in the couplet.
   B. Other poems
  Venus & Adonis, in which Shakespeare made his first bid for literary patronage & fame, is a conventional Elizabethan narrative poem. Its mythological story, taken from Ovids Metamorphoses, tells of the passionate love goddess who woos the reluctant youth Adonis.
The Rape of Lucrece, another narrative of passion, is based on the semi historical story of the rape of a chaste Roman matron by Tarquin, son of the king of Rome.

 5. 领会His Major Theme
 1) Shakespeare is against religious persecution & racial discrimination, against social inequality & the corrupting influence of gold & money.
 2) He was a humanist of the time & accepted the Renaissance views on literature.

 6. 领会His Literary Achievements
  1) Characterization
  His major characters are neither merely individual ones nor type ones; they are individuals representing certain types. Each character has his or her own personalities; meanwhile, they may share features with others. The soliloquies in his plays fully reveal the inner conflict of his characters. Shakespeare also portrays his characters in pairs. Contrasts are frequently used to bring vividness to his characters.
  The women in the plays are vivid creations, each differing from the others. Shakespeare was fond of portraying "mocking wenches," such as Kate of the Taming of the Shrew, Rosaline of Love's Labor's Lost, & Beatrice of Much Ado About Nothing, but he was equally adept at creating gentle & innocent women, such as Ophelia in Hamlet, Desdemona in Othello, & Cordelia in King Lear. His female characters also include the treacherous Goneril & Regan, the iron-willed Lady Macbeth, the witty & resourceful Portia, the tender & loyal Juliet, & the alluring Cleopatra.
  2) Plot Construction
  Shakespeare's plays are well known for their adroit plot construction. He seldom invents his own plots; instead, he borrows them from some old plays or storybooks, or from ancient Greek & Roman sources. There are usually several threads running through the play, thus providing the story with suspense & apprehension.
  3) Language
  In Shakespeare's time, English grammar & spelling were not yet formalized, so Shakespeare could freely inter charge the various parts of speech, using nouns as adjectives or verbs, adjectives as adverbs, & pronouns as nouns. Such freedom gave his language an extraordinary flexibility, which enabled him to express his thoughts as easily in poetry as in prose.
  Most of Shakespeare's dramatic poetry is in blank verse, or unrhymed iambic pentameter. His bland verse is especially beautiful & mighty. He has an amazing wealth of vocabulary & idiom. His coinage of new words & distortion of the meaning of the old ones also create striking effects on the reader.

  7. 应用Selected Readings
   1) Sonnet 18
  Theme: a profound meditation on the destructive power of time & the eternal beauty brought forth by poetry to the one he loves.
 Imagery: a summer's day-youth    the eye of heaven-the sun
   2) The Merchant of Venice
  Theme: To praise the friendship between Antonio & Bassanio, to idealize Portia as a heroine of great beauty, wit & loyalty, & to expose the insatiable greed and brutality of the Jew.
  3) Hamlet
  This is one part of Hamlet's most famous monologue. Hamlet, facing the dilemma of action & mind, is hesitating whether he should revenge for his father, which may bring him death, or he should suffer & hide his hatred for his uncle in his deep heart, which may secure his life.

IV. Francis Bacon

1. 一般识记Brief Introduction

  English Renaissance philosopher, essayist, statesman, born in London, England, Jan 22,1561 and died in London, April 9 1626.
    One of the outstanding figures of the Renaissance, Bacon made important contributions to several fields. His chief interest were science philosophy, but he was also a distinguished man of letters & held several high governmental positions during the reign of king James
. He was one of the earliest & most eloquent spokesmen for experimental science. He lays the foundation for modern science with his insistence on scientific way of thinking & fresh observation rather than authority as a basis for obtaining knowledge.

  2. 识记His works
  As an author, Bacon is most famous for his Essays, which deal with such subjects as honor, friendship, love, & riches. Written in a terse, polished style, with many learned allusions & metaphors, the essays rank with the finest in English literature.
  Bacon's other important literary works include The New Atlantis, an account of an ideal society & an imaginary voyage, & The History of the Reign of King Henry , a perceptive psychological study of Henry's mind & characters.
  His works can be divided into three groups
  First group:  The Advancement of Learning (1605)
        Novum Organum (1620) (Latin version)
  Second group:  Essays
         Apophthagmes New & Old (1605)
         The History of the Reign of Henry (1622)
         The New Atlantis (unfinished)
  Third group:  Maxims of Law
         The Learned Reading upon the
         Stature of Uses (1642)

  3. 领会 His Major Works
  Essays
  The term "essay" was borrowed from Montaigne's Essais, which appeared from 1580 to 1588. Bacon learned from Montaigne, the first great modern essayist, the economic & flexible way of writing. However, as a practical & prudential man, he intends to write for the ambitious Elizabethan & Jacobean youth of his class & tell them how to be efficient & make their way in public life.
Bacon's essays are famous for their brevity, compactness & powerfulness. The essays are well arranged & enriched by Biblical allusions, Metaphors & cadence.

 4. 领会His achievements
As a literary man, Bacon is the first English essayist, whose Essays won him a high place in the history of English literature.
As a philosopher, he is the founder of English materialistic philosophy. He advocates the inductive method of reasoning. In his famous plea for progress, Bacon demands three things: 1) the free investigation of nature, 2) the discovery of facts instead of the blind belief in theories 3) the verification of results by experiment rather than by argument. In our day, these are the ABC of science, but in Bacon's time they were revolutionary, Marx called him "the real father of English materialism & experimental science of modern times in general."

5. 应用 Of  Studies
  Of Studies is the most popular of Bacon's 58 essays. It analyzes what studies chiefly serve for, the different ways adopted by different people to pursue studies, & how studies exert influence over human character. Forceful & persuasive, compact & precise, Of Studies reveals to us Bacon's mature attitude towards learning. Bacon's language is neat, priest, & weighty. It is some what affected, like the water in the reservoir, restricted & confined.

V. John Donne

1.一般识记 Donne & the Metaphysical Poetry
  John Donne: English poet & Clergyman, born in London, England, 1572, and died in London, Mar. 31 1631. Donne is the leading figure of the 17th-century "metaphysical school." His poems give a more inherently theatrical impression by exhibiting a seemingly unfocused diversity of experiences & attitudes, & a free range of feelings & attitudes, & a free range of feelings & moods. The mode is dynamic rather than static, with ingenuity of speech, vividness of imagery & vitality of rhythms, which show a notable contrast to the other Elizabethan lyric poems, which are pure, serene, tuneful, & smooth running. The most striking feature of Donne's poetry is precisely its tang of reality, in the sense that it seems to reflect life in a real rather than a poetical world. "Metaphysical Poetry" is commonly used to name the work of the 17th-century writers who wrote under the influence of John Donne. With a rebellions spirit, the metaphysical poets tried to break away from the conventional fashion of the Elizabethan Love poetry. The diction is simple as compared with echoes the words & cadences of common speech. The imagery is drawn from the actual life. The form is frequently that of an argument with the poet's beloved, with God, or with himself. George Herbert, Andrew Marvell, Richard Crashaw, Henry Vaughan, Abraham Cowley, & Thomas Traherne are also considered to be metaphysical poets. They wrote on a variety of religious & secular themes, & to express their ideas, they used startling, highly imaginative comparisons known as conceits. A conceit is a combination of thoughts or images that are not usually associated with one another.
  The finest works of the metaphysical poets combine intellectual subtlety with great emotional power. The poems reflect a broad knowledge of science, art, & other branches of learning. At the same time, metaphysical poems express an intense awareness of common human feelings & experiences, such as jealousy, the loss of religious faith, the complexities of love & the fear of death. Although the imagery of metaphysical poetry is frequently strained, the language is often as natural & direct as ordinary speech.

  2识记His major works
  In his life, Donne wrote a large number of poems & prose works, His poems are especially admired for their unique combination of passionate feeling & intellectual wit. Many of his poems rank with the finest in the English language. Among his most famous works are the poems Death Be Not Proud, "Go & Catch a Falling Star," The Ecstacy, & A Valediction Forbidding Mourning.
  Most of The Elegies & Satires & a good many of The Songs & Sonnets were written in the early period. He wrote prose works mainly in the later period. His sermons, which are very famous, reveal his spiritual devotion to God as a passionate preacher.
His works are classified as songs & sonnets, epistles, elegies, & satires. When read in chronological order, the poems reveal his development from "Gay Jack Donne," a reckless & cynical youth, to Dean John Donne, a man devoted to God.
  Donne's great prose works are his sermons, which are both rich & imaginative, exhibiting the same kind of physical vigor & scholastic complexity as his poetry. For example, the well-known Devotions Upon Emergent Occasions (1623-1624). Written when he was seriously ill, they contain the famous passage: "No Man is an island entire of itself; every man is a piece of the continent, a part of the main Any man's death diminishes me, because I am involved in mankind, & therefore never send to know for whom the bell tolls; it tolls for thee."

  3. 领会 Characteristics of His Poems
  Donne's poetry is subtle, complex, & often startling(令人吃惊的). He made expert use of such poetic techniques as the paradox( ['p?r?d?ks] 悖论,反论;似非而是的论点), a statement that seems contradictory but actually contains truth, & the conceit, a pertinent (['p??t?n?nt] 相关的,相干的;中肯的;切题的)comparison between 2 apparently dissimilar things.
  His early Lyrics most exist in The Songs & Sonnets. Love is the basic theme. Donne holds that the nature of love is the union of soul & body. The operations of the soul depend on the body. Idealism & cynicism about love coexist in Donne's love poetry.
  As a religious poet, his chief power is shown in the Holy Sonnets & the last hymns.
  In his poems, Donne frequently applies conceits, i.e. extended metaphors involving dramatic contrasts. His poetry involves a certain kind of argument, sometimes in rigid syllogistic form. With the brief, simple language, the argument is continuous throughout the poem.

4. 应用Selected Readings
  1) Death Be Not Proud, one of Donne's Holy Sonnets, is an almost Startling put-down of poor death. Staunchly Christian in its pare expectation of the resurrection, Donne's poem personifies death as an adversary swollen with false pride & unworthy of being called "mighty & dreadful." Donne gives various reasons in accusing death of being little more than a slave bossed about by fate, chance, kings & desperate men-a craven thing that keeps bad company, such as poison, was & sickness. Finally, Donne taunts death with a paradox: "death, thou shalt die(死神,你必将丧命)."
  The sonnet is written in the strict Petrarchan pattern. It reveals the poet's belief in life after death: death is eternal.
  2) The Sun Rising
  The persona apostrophizes the sun as " unruly" because the sun enters the lovers' secret room without their approval. The speaker criticizes the sun pays too much attention to such things as sex & that he should not be behaving so tediously as to stick to his rule & enter without thinking twice into such a place as lovers dwell.

. John Milton

1.一般识记 Brief Introduction
  John Milton, English poet & prose(散文)writer, born in London, England, Dec. 9, 1608, and died in London, Nov 8, 1674.
  Milton was one of the greatest poets in the English language & one of the towering(高耸的;卓越的;激烈的)figures in all literature. His masterpiece, Paradise Lost, is considered the unsurpassed English epic poem. It is a powerfully imaginative & dramatic work, based in part on the Biblical story of the temptation & fall of Adam & Eve in the Garden of Eden. Milton, a deeply religious man, wrote the epic "to justify the ways of God to men." He is also famous for his graceful lyric poems, such as Lycidas, L'Allegro, & for his intensely moving sonnets. 
  Milton was a great master of language, & his poetry, both epic & lyric, is admired for its sublime eloquence & rich musical quality.

  2. 识记His literary achievements
  Milton's literary achievements can be divided into three groups: the early poetic works, the middle prose pamphlets & the last great poems.
  1) Education & Early Poetry
  Milton's education would ordinarily have led him to a post in the Church of England. He was a Puritan, however, & his religious vies conflicted with those of the Church. After his 7 years at Cambridge, therefore, he retired in 1632 to his father's estate at Horton. His famous poems L'Allegro & IL Penseroso were probably written in 1631, before his withdrawal from Cambridge. These are companion pieces that contrast the temperaments of the cheerful, active man & the melancholy, reflective man. In his early works, Milton appears as the inheritor of all that was best in Elizabethan literature. Lycidas (1637) is a typical example. All of Milton's early works reflect his interest in Greek & Latin poetry, which greatly influenced his style. His poems contain a wealth of classical references, figures of speech, & other poetic devices, all masterfully blended into his rich verse.
  2) Middle Period & Prose Pamphlets
  In 1638, Milton began a 15-month tour of the Continent, where he met the Italian scientist Galileo Galilei. Upon his return to England he became deeply involved in the political & religious struggle between Parliament, which was then dominated by the Presbyterians, & the followers of king Charles, who supported the Church of England. Milton sided with Parliament & began to write a series of pamphlets attacking the power of the bishops & the rituals of the Church. In 1652 he suffered great personal tragedy with the total loss of his eyesight & the death of his wife & infant son In spite of his blindness, Milton continued his official duties until 1655. During these tragic years of his life he wrote some of his most poignant & beautiful sonnets. They include On His Blindness, which reveals the consolation he found in religious faith, & Methought 1 Saw My Late Espoused Saint, written as a tribute to his second wife. Another of his greatest sonnets, On the Late Massacre in Piedmont, commemorated the slaughter of a sect of religious martyrs in 1655. Areopagitica (1644) is probably his most memorable prose work. It is a great plea for freedom of the press. Its style is smooth & calm.
 3) Later Years & Major Poetry
  After the Restoration in 1660, Milton was imprisoned. His release was brought about mainly through the efforts of his friends, notably the poet Andrew Marwell, After that time he devoted himself to his 3 major poetical works: Paradise Lost (1667), Paradise Regained (1671), & Samson Agonistes (1671). Among the three, the first is the greatest, indeed the only generally acknowledged epic in English literature since Beowulf; & the last one is the most perfect example of the verse drama after the Greek style in English.

  3.领会His Major Works
 1) Lycidas(《利西达斯》)
  It is a collection of elegies dedicated to Edward king, a fellow undergraduate of Milton's at Cambridge, who was drowned in the Irish Sea. The poem begins with grief & a feeling of immaturity; then the grief is deepened by the sense of irrecoverable loss in the silencing of a young poet. With this bitter sense of loss, Milton asks why the just & good should suffer. These emotions swell to a passionate call for the consolation of art. The poem moves from a sad apprehension of death, through regret, to passionate questioning, rage, sorrow & acceptance. The feelings begin in a low key but move on to the large questions of divine justice & human accountability. The climax of the poem is the blistering attack on the clergy, i.e. the "Shepherds," who are corrupted by self-interest.
  2) Paradise Lost
  Paradise Lost, an epic poem in 12 books, written in blank verse, represents the fullest expression of Milton's genius. The poem vividly portrays the story of Satan's rebellion against God & his tempting of Adam & Eve to eat the fruit of the forbidden Tree of Knowledge. The theme is the "Fall of Man," i.e. man's disobedience & the loss of Paradise, with its prime cause-Satan. Although Adam is the central figure in Paradise Lost, it is the villain, Satan, who emerges for many readers as the most interesting character in the poem, In Paradise Lost, Milton used the conventions of ancient Greek & Latin epics & enriched his poem with reference to classical mythology & literature.

 Chapter II The Neoclassical Period

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